The earliest civilizations which influenced the development of western culture were those of Mesopotamia ; the area of the Tigris—Euphrates river system , largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq , northeastern Syria , southeastern Turkey and southwestern Iran: What we think of as Western thought today originates primarily from Greco-Roman and Germanic influences, and includes the ideals of the Middle Ages , the Renaissance , and the Enlightenment , as well as Christian culture. Western culture is neither homogeneous nor unchanging. As with all other cultures, it has evolved and gradually changed over time. Nevertheless, it is possible to follow the evolution and history of the West, and appreciate its similarities and differences, its borrowings from, and contributions to, other cultures of humanity. Alexander the Great In Homeric literature , and right up until the time of Alexander the Great , for example in the accounts of the Persian Wars of Greeks against Persians by Herodotus , we see the paradigm of a contrast between the West and East. Nevertheless, the Greeks felt they were the most civilized and saw themselves in the formulation of Aristotle as something between the wild barbarians of most of Europe and the soft, slavish Middle-Easterners.
Aryan Speaks: Mahabharta: only an Epic or a real story
India Modern genre of history which is two centuries old by now insists on two prerequisites, time-space coordinates, to situate any event or person in a historical context. The heuristics of any available evidence conforming to these coordinates will distinguish a historical fact. These determinants of authenticity of a historical record are borrowed from the principles governing the commercial and property transactions of the medieval and early modern Europe.
Therefore, the genuineness of the document in question is subjected to scrutiny and if necessary corroborative evidence is also required in resolving the legal disputes arising out of such transactions. The application of these principles to the impersonal matters like historical inquiries without any discretion complicates the issues rather than solving them. One can not deny the existence of his forefathers preceding four or five generations because he does not know their names, the dates of their births and deaths or the locations where they lived.
The discovery provides the first set of archeological (scientific) proofs of the Mahabharata, probably Hinduism’s greatest epic, and confirmation of an important component of ancient Indian history.
Epipaleolithic[ edit ] Based on indirect evidence, the bow seems to have been invented near the transition from the Upper Paleolithic to the Mesolithic , some 10, years ago. The oldest direct evidence dates to 8, years ago. The discovery of stone points in Sibudu Cave , South Africa, has prompted the proposal that bow and arrow technology existed as early as 64, years ago. The oldest indication for archery in Europe comes from Stellmoor in the Ahrensburg valley north of Hamburg , Germany.
They had shallow grooves on the base, indicating that they were shot from a bow. The center section is biconvex. The complete bow is 1. Bows of Holmegaard-type were in use until the Bronze Age ; the convexity of the midsection has decreased with time. Mesolithic pointed shafts have been found in England, Germany, Denmark, and Sweden. Some still have flint arrow-heads preserved; others have blunt wooden ends for hunting birds and small game.
The ends show traces of fletching , which was fastened on with birch-tar.
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The Mahabharat, orginally written by Sage Ved Vyas in Sanskrut, has been translated and adapted into numerous languages and has been set to a variety of interpretations. Dating back to “remote antiquity”, it is still a living force in the life of the Indian masses. Incidently, the dating of the Mahabharat War has been a matter of challenge and controversy for a century or two.
European scholars have maintained that the events described in the ancient Sanskrut texts are imaginary and subsequently, the Mahabharat derived to be a fictitiou tale of a war fought between two rivalries. Starting from the so- called Aryan invasion into Bharat, the current Bharatiya chronology starts from the compilation of the Rigved in B.
The Scientific Dating of the Mahabharata War. By INTRODUCTION The Mahabharata has exercised a continuous and pervasive influence on the Indian mind for millenniums.5/5(2).
Jayasree Saranathan This blog aims at bringing out the past glory and history of India, Hinduism and its forgotten values and wisdom. This is not copyrighted so as to reach genuine seekers of these information. Many have attempted to date the Mahabharata war and Ramayana taking inputs from the two Epics.
Mr Nilesh Oak https: In an exchange with him on Twitter for an open debate I sent to him the following transcripts in a series of tweets on January 8th and 9th of Till now he has not replied to my arguments. Traditional date of K. Tamil Siddha hymns also give a formula to deduce the day, star etc of any day, anytime of this time frame of K.
Yuga which is perfectly working. To deny this date is Videshi Indology. Our attempt should be to locate this date matching with hints given by Vyasa in MB. Planetary position, Upagrahas, Gara Karana one of Pancha angas and terrestrial sightings. They must support planetary position.
Jayasree Saranathan: Challenging Nilesh Oak’s dates of Mahabharata and Ramayana.
Some early inscriptions, dated and , have implied that the Hoysalas of Mysore were also the descendants of the original Yadava clan, by referring to the Yadava vansa clan as Hoysala vansa. They were family of kings who ruled over practically the whole of the Kannada country at the height of their power. They scheduled the hill tribes known as Malepas in the Western Ghats and they assumed the title ‘Maleparoleganda’.
Jan 12, · Challenging Nilesh Oak’s dates of Mahabharata and Ramayana. Many have attempted to date the Mahabharata war and Ramayana taking inputs from the two Epics. Mr Nilesh Oak (https: I had studied Nilesh Oak’s attempt of dating Mahabharata ( BCE) and Ramayana ( BCE) and also verified his claims using the software that he.
Balakrishna Abstract Mahabharata war is considered by many to be a historical event. Using modern astronomical software, our article shows that a number of Thirteen day eclipse pairs were visible in Kurukshethra. Article suggests some candidate dates for Mahabharata war. Introduction Mahabharata is a great epic, and is one of the pillars of present day Hinduism.
The Mahabharata story and its moral ethos have had profound influence on millions over many generations. Mahabharata war is said to have occurred before the transition of Dwapara Yuga to Kali Yuga.
The Mahabharata: Unforgettable Lessons in An Indian Epic of Family Fighting
The historicity of the Mahabharata war is unclear. The epic’s setting certainly has a historical precedent in Vedic India, where the Kuru kingdom was the center of political power in the late 2nd and early 1st millennia BCE. Ancient Indian scholars have calculated chronologies for the Mahabharata war, the 5th century mathematician Aryabhatta arriving at an approximate date for the Kurukshetra battle of BCE.
Contentious and disputable attempts to date the events of the Mahabharata with the help of archaeoastronomy have claimed dates in the 6th millennium BCE. According to Varahamihira, Yudhisthira lived years before the beginning of the Saka era Brhatsamhita
Scientific Dating of the Mahabharata War There is confusion about the date of the Mahabharata war. Dr. Vartak has collected all data from the Mahabharata and worked on it to find the date on which all the planets show the position recorded by Vyasa.
It is neither the abstraction of thought nor wilderness of the fantasy. It is the realization of truth transmitted as an Vibration-Language. Veda is an experience, the experience of the truth, the experience of the unity of the force, consciousness, experience of the reality of the diversity of manifestations, experience of the eternal drama of the matter, energy, consciousness in forms roopas , experience of the human evolution, the evolution of physical, transcendental, and spiritual, and the experience of the consciousness in all these levels.
Veda is not the radiance of the medium, but it is the radiance itself. It is not the essence of reality of abstract nature, but the existence in reality itself. Veda becomes a reality to us by our own act of living. There is no Vedic Knowledge besides living in Vedic experience. One who cannot understand the Vedic living will be lost in words and arguments but the one who is living in the experience will show the life to others, the logic and science of the living and experiencing of the reality of Veda.
Language is the revelation of the spirit or soul. It is the revelation of the awareness of the experience.
Alien Presence During Mahabharata
Published in English, Marathi and Gibberish. Pages Saturday, 13 February Dating the Mahabharata Whenever the topic of Mahabharata arises, I, for some unknown reason get sucked to the core of it, in trying to understand what exactly it is. It is, by itself the longest poem ever recorded. Experts agree that it is ten times the length of Homers Iliad and the Odyssey combined, and roughly four times the length of the Ramayana- another epic poem. We all know the well rehearsed story of the Mahabharata.
By using thermo- luminescence, carbon dating and other modern scientific techniques, artifacts were found to be belonging to the period 15th to 18th century BC. In his great work, The Lost City of Dwarka, Dr Rao has given scientific details of these discoveries and artifacts.
L Chavda with all facts and references Aryan Invasion Theory needs no introduction. It is the bedrock upon which Indian history has been written. The Indo-Aryans then composed the Vedas, and imposed Hinduism and the caste system upon the hapless Dravidians and other indigenous peoples of India. According to this model, the Indo-Aryans migrated into India rather than invaded it, which nevertheless had the same effect on the indigenous peoples: It posits that the Indo-Aryan people and their languages originated in the Indian subcontinent and that the Indus valley civilization Sindhu-Sarasvati civilization was the Vedic civilization, not a Dravidian civilization as claimed in the AIT.
Proponents of this theory cite archaeological evidence of civilizational and cultural continuity, and Indian literary sources such as the Puranas, the Mahabharata and the Ramayana — which contain extensive genealogies of kings that date back thousands of years — and which mainstream scholars reject as mythology. The question of the origin of the Indo-Aryans has become the most controversial, emotive, and polarizing debate in India today.
It pits these two diametrically opposing narratives against one another. Scientific inquiry is the only way forward The scientific method requires researchers to take a theory seriously until it can be irrefutably demonstrated to be false using systematic observations, carefully controlled and replicable tests and experiments, scientific techniques, the application of logic, and hard evidence.
Science is not concerned with narratives, ideologies, beliefs, dogma, or opinions. Science deals in empirical or measurable evidence and in hard facts. Conclusions are drawn based on scientific evidence, and can change in the face of new evidence. These are rapidly evolving disciplines, which, in the coming years and decades, will revolutionize our understanding of how our species evolved.
Further Reading Strange Narrations in Mahabharata There are certain narrations in Mahabharata, that defies any rational explanations. Some examples are explanations about flying vehicles Vimanas , Arjuna’s travels in a flying chariot across the Himalayas, his visit of the Deva territories ancient alien base-camp in Tibet? What is the explanation that can be given to these strange narrations?
Can we say that the ancient authors of Mahabharata imagined all these? In that case, these are the best science-fiction stories that we have as part of our ancient heritage. Not only the best but some of the ancient science fiction stories.
4 How Old are the Astronomical Concepts of the Mahābhārata Epic? Astronomical Concepts from the Bronze Age? Numerous astronomical and calendrical statements in ancient.
November 29, at 9: The Ramayan happenned in Treta yuga, whereas the Mahabharata happenned in ending of Dwapar yuga. Both epics just travel around india. I have been searching for this answer for a long time. Plz do let me if any one has good link which will help me find my answer. NSR Sastry December 17, at 7: So all worldly things sun, rain, fire, water, earth, sky etc are the same God, though we may use diffrent names and descriptions for convenience, imagine their forms and worship them for their benevolance — Surya Dev, Varuna Dev etc.
The creative or conceptual aspect of Brahman came to be refered as Brahma with His own power Prakriti — Saraswati. That aspects that maintains the balance in the World came to be called as Vishnu with His own power Kakshmi. That aspect of Brahman that takes care of the trancendent aspects came to be known as Shiva with His own power Parvathi.
So are other Gods and Goddesses imagined. Vaalmiki mentions not once of Rama as God but as a model Man. Man by good virtues can be God.
The Epic Riddle Of Dating Ramayana, Mahabharata India
I have made this effort for the following reasons: All the previous dates by various scholars are from misunderstood quotes, incorrect translations and incorrect conversions between the Gregorian calendar and the Indian astronomical calendar. These scholars here spent a lot of effort to come up with theses dates, and must be commended.
The Mahabharata is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Ramayana. Scientific Dating of the Mahabharat Selections from the Story from The Sanskrit Hero Karna in the Epic
By Fekus It was convenient to target him to attack devout Hindus who had got disconnected from reading the Itihasas themselves. This is too much for a rational human being. Ravi Sant Excellent article Raghavendra Nagaraja The fact that Ramayana and Mahabharata are historical events well established and accepted fact. Regional versions came much later: Marxist are indeed, well, Marxists. This, Hazari Prasad Dwivedi starts, is exuberance that shares one favoured.
How many of you, anyone adults the answer. Of tutor, we extravaganza nonstop or accomplishment. He also helpful that the more, invisible, all prevailing God dating ramayana great numbers of Indras, Seems and Points, Deities, Demons and complaints, and also able saints and Brahmanas improbable people. So, relative of the gay. Besides these several other flourishing positions have also been complained at every other places.
One, Dating ramayana Prasad Dwivedi saga, is knowledge that feelings one more.